Mycobacterium tuberculosis or also called Koch's bacillus is the most important bacteria causing Tuberculosis disease. Tuberculosis is a bacterial infectious disease that primarily involves the lungs, but can also spread to other organs. According to the WHO report, TB is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. In 2016 alone, 10.4 million people became ill with tuberculosis and 1.7 million died from the disease. More than 95% of tuberculosis deaths occur in low and middle income countries and the majority of patients are concentrated in India, Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, and South Africa.
TB is transmitted from person to person through the air. When people with pulmonary tuberculosis cough, sneeze or spit, they spread the germs of tuberculosis into the air. A person needs to inhale only some of these germs to become infected. The common symptoms of active pulmonary tuberculosis can be very similar to the symptoms of other diseases such as fever, tiredness, lack of appetite, weight loss, depression and sweating. In a more advanced stage appears cough with spike and blood, chest pains, weakness.
Tuberculosis is curable, but an early diagnosis is necessary, since it is a serious disease if the appropriate treatment is not followed. If the drug is discontinued or pills are taken improperly, the proliferation of drug-resistant bacilli is favored. Then two different forms of TB are developed. One is MDR (multiresistant) caused by bacteria that develop resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH), and second is XDR, short for 'ultra-resistant tuberculosis', is a form of tuberculosis resistant to at least four of the main drugs. Ending the TB epidemic by 2030 is one of the WHO's goals for sustainable development.
India accounts for about a quarter of the global burden of TB. It is a major problem for public health. In 2016, more than 2,800,000 people became ill with TB and 430,000 people died due to it. In March 2017, the Government of India announced that the new goal was elimination of tuberculosis by 2025.
Free TB treatment is available at all government health centers in India. Tuberculosis treatment and care in India is provided in the public sector through the National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) as well as through private sector health service providers.
The main causes of TB in India is poverty and malnutrition that compromises the immune system and makes it easier for TB to develop. There is also little education such as protection against bacteria and inadequate knowledge about the disease and inadequate precautions. The little hygiene and a growing contamination can aggravate TB infection. The majority of the population is poor and lives in small and closed spaces without good ventilation.
There are many government hospitals where TB is treated. One of them is the oldest hospital in India- Medical College where tuberculosis is treated. In the hospital there is a lack of personnel, medicines and medical equipment and the conditions where people are treated are inhuman. Despite this, doctors committed to patients manage to cure more than 80% of people admitted to the hospital.
In order to totally destroy TB in India, several measures must be taken, above all by the public sector. It's necessary increase budgets and the creation of a massive campaign to guarantee the awareness and empowerment of the most seriously affected people. Access to free and reliable TB testing, counseling, free high-quality treatment, and financial and nutritional support is needed.
Until then, TB will continue to devastate the foundations of this future global superpower.
The building of the TB ward in Medical College in Agra.
The doctor who is on duty is reviewing and completing patient documents. Each patient admitted to the hospital has his / her card with the history of the disease and the medicines he / she has to take.
The woman is subjected to a lung capacity test. To be diagnosed, people go first to OPD. OPD is a department of patients who are not yet admitted to the hospital but pass the tests and basic diagnosis.
The doctor examines the patient's x-ray to identify if he has tuberculosis infections. Cough, weight loss or blood in the lungs may be the first signs of tuberculosis.
In the hospital, a census of people sick with tuberculosis is kept. If the patient is not admitted to the hospital and does not have a serious version of TB, he can stay home and take prescribed medications.
The patient is undergoing tests and is being given medication through the veins.
Patients with tuberculosis often suffer severe weight loss, which is considered immunosuppressive and a major determinant of the severity and outcome of the disease.
An adult can weigh only 35 kilos
An adult can weigh only 35 kilos
The woman receives an injection in the tuberculosis department. People who suffer from HIV or have cancer are often affected by tuberculosis. Due to the weak organism and the inefficiency of the immune system, the tuberculosis bacterium develops very rapidly.
One of the corridors in the hospital with a room for TB patients. A family member of a admitted patient is resting in the hallway.
The patient is ill with MDR.Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as TB that is resistant to both isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP), two of the first-line drugs used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis patients often suffer from severe weight loss, which is considered to be immunosuppressive and a major determinant of severity and outcome of disease.
In order not to infect other patients and doctors, TB patients have to cover their mouths with a mask or a scarf.
A young girl patient is waiting for the change of wound dressing in the tuberculosis and chest diseases ward in the one of the oldest hospitals in india. She has an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall. The bottle of water next to the bed collects the extra air which can cause collapsed lung.
Tuberculosis untreated, poorly treated or combined with other diseases such as HIV, is lethal. Many elderly people die from tuberculosis because their weak body is unable to fight the disease.
Tuberculosis is a curable disease. But to cure you have to be constant and take prescribed medications. The treatment can last up to 12 months.
Medical college in Agra is one of the oldest hospitals in India. The branch on which people are treated with tuberculosis is destroyed and there is a lack of basic medical equipment, medicines and personnel. However, despite the sacrifice of doctors and their work, 80% of people suffering from tuberculosis are cured.